logo

Dedicated to Advocacy,

 Awareness, Education

and Support

Insulin Pumps...

Types of  PumpsPump User ReviewsInfusion SetsSite LocationsChanging a SiteWearing a PumpPump LogsCGMPump CoveragePumping TipsStarting Pumping

 

This does not replace any medical advice. The following is for your information only. Please feel free to share with your diabetes team but it does not make any changes in your diabetes management without first consulting your diabetes team

An insulin pump is not a cure but another method of insulin delivery. It is a small pager-like device that mechanically pumps set amounts of fast-acting insulin into the patient's body. This is not yet a closed loop system. It is a system that requires the setting of "basal rates" and the calculation of various insulin to food ratios to be used in the run of a day.

Unlike Multiple Daily Injection therapy (MDI), pump therapy does not use a long-lasting insulin but small amounts of fast-acting insulin are delivered throughout the day. For some this leads to feelings of unease as the threat of DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis) looms greater. For others it simply leads to feelings of freedom as they no longer are forced to follow the clock. The peaks of long-lasting NPH insulins may have been a problem, or the single basal rate offered by insulin glargine may not match their body's needs.

An insulin pump lets you set a variety of "basal rates" to meet the naturally occurring needs of your body. It further allows you to match insulin to carbohydrate intake rather than having to "feed" your insulin. You now chose to eat, snack or graze.

Pumping insulin is not for everyone. It is another method of insulin delivery. Some do not like the idea of being attached to a mechanical device 24/7 but the freedom, flexibility and tight control often outweighs any of the negative concerns.

An insulin pump currently costs approximately $7000CAD and require monthly pump supplies whose costs can run upwards of $1200 per year. These costs are often, but not always covered by private insurance plans.  In Canada, more and more provinces are also beginning to realize the long term benefits of covering insulin pumps and supplies under their provincial health care policies. 


What does it  all look like?



pump description All together!
 

What insulin pumps are available?


Below is a chart of the current, most popular insulin pumps available.  All of these pumps are available in the US and Canada.

Pump accuchek

Ping

Tslim MiniLink_Pump_Callouts.JPG
pink paradigm
Cool New Colors!
 
Manufacturer Accu-Chek Spirit by Roche Animas One Touch Ping
Now available the Animas Vibe
Tandem Diabetes Care

Paradigm Veo (Real Time System)

 by Medtronic

OmniPod

 

Resevoir Size 315 unit Cartridge system
(see our Products page for details)
200u 300u  176 u (in 522) or 300u (in 722 model) 200u
Battery Type 1 standard or rechargeable AA battery Uses one AA lithium battery. Can use a regular battery in a pinch Integrated rechargeble lithium polymer battery One AAA PDM: 2 Alkaline AAA Batteries
Battery Life 4 week average for standard AA or 1 week with rechargeable AA 4 to 6 weeks 7 days when fully charged  n/a 4 weeks
Pump size 3.2"x2.2"x.08" 3.25 x 2 x .85 inches (Meter Remote Size: 3.80 x 2.46 x 1.12 inches)
Meter remote does not exist in Vibe. This replaced by a DexCom transmitter
2.0 x 3.13 x .6 inches

522 model measures 5 x 7.6 x 2 cm

722 model measures 5 x 9 x 2 cm

OmniPod: 1.6 in. x 2.4 in. x 0.7 in.
PDM: 2.6 in. x 4.3 in. x 1.0 in.
Pump weight 2.8 oz pump
(4oz with filled insulin cartridge, battery and infusion set)
Approx 3.9 oz with full reservoir (Meter Remote Weight: Approx 3.88 oz) 3.95oz. with full reservoir

522 model  weighs only 100 grams with a full reservoir

722 model  weighs 108 grams with a full reservoir.

OmniPod: Approximately 1.2 oz. (with full reservoir)
PDM: 4.0 oz. (with batteries)
Waterproof

IPX8 (8' in depth for 60 minutes)

Waterproof at 3.6M (12 feet) for up to 24 hours IPX7 Rating. Watertight - tested at 3 feet for 30 minutes. Water resistant. It should not be worn to swim. 8 feet for 30 minutes
Luer  Lock             conections yes yes yes no integrated angled infusion set with automated cannula insertion and no tubing
Lowest Basal and Bolus rates  0.1 bolus rate with bolus increments of .1,0.2,0.5,1.0, 2.0
Basal delivery in 0.1 increments up to 25.0 U/hr
.025 basal rate and .05 food bolus .05 to 25 unit bolus 

0.05 U/hr

0.05 U/hr increments, up to 30 U/hr

Bolus 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 unit increments

Bolus Wizard yes in Palm device. ezCarb Customizable Food Database. Meter-remote can store a customized list of up to 500 foods for easy carb counting on the go. Yes Bolus Wizard® Calculator simplifies insulin dosing and reduces math errors Integrated food database with over 1000 common food items

Suggested bolus calculator
Temporary Basal Patterns

10% increments from 0% to 250% in 15 minutes windows

-90% to +200% 15 minutes to 72 hours with 1 minute resolution Range: 0% - 250%

+/- 0.05 U/hr

+/- 1% 

Percentage or U/hr adjustments
Easy to use menu

Reversible graphic display

Side mounted tactile buttons for Quick bolus

 

High contrast color screen: white-on-dark type and a yellow bar that highlights each function as you navigate the screen. It has the largest screen currently available. Touch screen; black screen with blue, orange, red, grey text. Alpha-numeric keypad yes yes
Backlight yes Self illuminating so no backlight is needed Yes. Backlit color touch screen. yes yes
Works with BG monitor

yes, Accu-Chek Aviva and Accu-Chek Compact Plus

Yes, the OneTouch Ping has a pump-meter combination where the meter-remote can wirelessly control pump functions.
Animas Vibe works with DexCom CGM
no 

Bayer's Contour Link Meter has been approved in Canada.  The Contour Link meter will be replacing the BD Blood Glucose meter that comes with Medtronic pumps.

Built in Freestyle BG meter
Customized Alerts Audible or vibrating bolus confirmation Compose your own tune or set to vibrate for most pump alert sounds. As customized low cartridge alert Reminders: Missed Meal Bolus; After Bolus; High BG; Low BG and Auto-Off Alarm yes Programmable reminders and alerts
Customized Basal Patterns Five rate profiles Four Six Four 7 programs with up to 24 segments each. Programmable in 30 minute increments
PC Compatible Software Yes

Infrared port for wireless data transfer

Accu-Chek Smart Pix device(USB plug and play)

Yes. Diasend web based software available in English and French for both Mac and PC platforms. Micro USB cable; t:connect diabetes management application available later this year.

Web Based - CareLink Personal, now available for Canadian customers in English and French

CareLnk Pro (Desktop software that HCPs can use to remotely access their patients' information previously uploaded into CareLink Personal) 

 
CGMS compatible n/a In Vibe only n/a  Yes. Uses the first of its kind, Real-Time Enlite Link sensor. This system is purchased separately.  
IOB calculator yes

8 time blocks for carb ratios and insulin sensitvities

choose your own times for your insulin-to-carb ratios, Insulin Sensitivity Factors (ISF) and blood glucose targets in 30-minute increments, up to 12 personal settings. yes yes yes
Personalized Insulin duration yes yes For IC Ratio: 16 time segments per 24-hour period. For ISF: 16 time segments no yes
Remote Bolus no  only in Ping n/a  optional yes
Color options blue Blue, pink, green, silver and black pump colours, with silver meter-remote Standard Black. Case covers available in 5 colors: aztec black, midway silver, alpine Now in a wide range of colors including Pink!! white
Warranty 4 years 4 years 4 years 4 years 4 Year PDM Warranty
Other

IR interface

2 tactile buttons

180 day back up pump

Electronic Diary

Reversible display

Available in 12 languages

resistant to static electricity and has memory protection in case battery is down for an extended period

 

Free Vacation travel loaner pump available for travel.

**This pump is not currently available in Canada 

RF Technology that allows the smart pump to upload data into CareLink. 

This technology also allows the Contour Link meter to send blood glucose readings to the pump 


Other pumps available


Animas' first CGM enabled insulin pump, the Animas Vibe. Currently available in the UK and Canada.
vibe

The Accu-Chek® Combo System is available in the UK.  The latest pump from Roche allows you to bolus from your Aviva combo meter as well as many more features.


The Solo MicroPump has been approved by the FDA for sale in the US. 

User comments and reviews:


Animas:

Not much difference between the 2020 and the 1250 except for the color screen (easier to read), and most importantly the variable I:C, ISF, and Target time ranges. It's also supposed to store the BG and number of carbs you enter for boluses and provide the ability to download them from the pump. The one drawback is that Animas hasn't released the upgraded Ez-Manager software for the 2020 that you use to download and program the pump.  Until they release the new Ez-Manager, you won't be able to program a custom tune, use the Food Database, or download pump readings.(I am able to download bolus values for now using the old version of Ez-Manager, but no basal rates and no programming pump settings on the computer - Has to be done manually.) There are only only 2 reminders you can set for specific times of day and then a reminder to check BG x hours after a bolus.  I don't think it has as many reminders as the Cozmo does.

Excellent customer service
I really liked the built in food database that helps you when bolusing for meals. The Animas lets you bolus in 0.05 unit increments and set basal rates in 0.025 unit increments. So it's great for anyone who's really sensitive to insulin. It's fully waterproof, the O-rings on the battery cover and the insulin reservoir really emphasize this. It also delivers the insulin boluses very quickly compared to my old Minimed. And despite the bright screen it doesn't seem to drain the single AA battery too quickly.
On the down side. I didn't like the speed at which the up and down arrows worked. The numbers scroll extremely quickly and it's hard to stop at exactly the right spot. I also missed seeing the carb information on the summary screen that's shown just before you get a chance to take a bolus. The history on the pump is very insulin centric, with no information about carbohydrate consumption or blood glucose values. I also wish the daily summary showed the ratio of meal boluses to correction boluses. Finally the accompanying software has a very dated feel, the reports are pretty basic and there is
no data export capability.
Even though I was just trying out the pump, Animas was very supportive any time I had a question.
from Bernard's Diabetes Blog

I could easily cancel the combo bolus, add the remainder to the new amount I am giving and give another combo bolus. Animas gives IOB with the total bolus on 1 screen (no scrolling) so you can make the decision to subtract the IOB or not based on the BG. Faster insulin delivery can cause some discomfort. Animas shows you the entire basal list with times and amounts on 1 screen so you can view the changes you make on 1 time period along with the rest of the time periods and amounts. I could do a negative temp basal (usually -10% for 30 minutes) AND it would show me how long we have left on the home screen.I do NOT change the insulin cartridge with a site change (that's wasteful). I change it when the pump tells me there are 20 units left in the cartridge. With Animas, there is simply a needle to get the insulin into the cartridge which is wonderful to be able to tip a nearly empty bottle to get all the insulin out. Animas has a much better "windows" based set up and much easier to read and bigger screens than Minimed.
from Rachel

Medtronic

We used Cozmo for 2 years then switched to the MM Real Time in able to have the CGMS.  It took us many months to get used to the small differences between Cozmo and MM but once we got used to it it was just as good as the Cozmo.  We sort of had to retrain ourselves to REMEMBER site change days b/c there is no alarm to tell you on the MM.  There were a few other little things too that drove me nuts but I can now officially say I love my MM pump just as much as my Cozmo pump. "

"I'll put in another plug for the Paradigm Real Time.  I love the fact that I can leave the house and the husband (no hands so he can't monitor his blood glucose levels) and he can monitor his own blood glucose level by just looking at the face of the pump. I also like the fact that he can go out and I don't really worry that much that he'll have a low on the road.  I sleep a lot better at night knowing that the sensor will wake him up if he goes low or high.  We have the low set at 5.0 and the high set at 10.0.  Before, I'd get up and monitor at 3 in the morning and I'd administer juice, if necessary or extra insulin, if necessary and all that got me wide awake and I couldn't back to sleep again for hours.  I think I was sleep deprived for 5 years.  I used to monitor 10 or 11 times / day, now, usually, it's about 6 or 7.  I have a better A1C to boot so we are losing nothing by reading less often.  The A1C is not much better .072 as opposed to .074, but I can even go out of town now for the day.  We also don't measure manually if we are across the border or in Toronto.  Measuring bgs on the leg is a very difficult task in mid-winter in a parking lot, I assure you.  So I reaaaaally reaaaaaaaly love my CGMS system.  Lately, it has been very, very much in control.  The readings do not vary much from the monitor's readings.  We've been getting close to 7 days on each sensor, too, lately.  I'm wondering if the fact we had higher readings in the summer meant that the pump only lasted 4 or 5 days or if Medtronic smarened up when the Dex 7 came out.

I have a medtronic insulin pump and it has change my life. Medtronic inuslin pumps are great.

"We have the Medtronic Minimed (which is the realtime one). The constant glucose monitors aren't covered by insurances yet, but they are working on it. We love the minimed. It is so easy to use! _____ is able to do most of it herself, and she has only been on it since June 19th. It is very user-friendly. Her a1c's dropped by 10% in the first two weeks on it. I would highly recommend it."

We have only used Medtronic pumps and products. What a difference my husband's insulin pump and sensor has made to both our lives.  My husband has much better control even with a chronic bone infection and heavy (750 mg twice a  day) cipro and ciprodex use and has not had a bad low in over a year.  This morning I counted up the number of readings I'd done before I got one over 10.0.  I had 21 readings, nearly 2 days' worth of readings where none were under 3.4 and none were over 10.0.  And my husband has been diabetic since 1978.  Sweet!"

We have the MM712, it is 3 years old and already behind the curve where smart pumps are today. With that being said I may love the newer smart pumps. I do not love this pump. I don’t like knowing that I only have 4 or 5 sets to chose from, since the connector is only with Paradigm pumps. There is the quickset, the silhouette, the sure-t, the sof-set (not recommended for smaller children) and the polyfin (not recommended for small children). We have had many problems with customer support…anytime anything has gone wrong it has been classified “user error” before you even explain what happened."

I cannot cancel the dual wave/square wave boluses so I can give a new dual wave.   Also, when you have a dual wave or square wave bolus going and you hit "act", it automatically goes to "suspend" instead of back to bolus.  That will take some getting used to. One advantage Minimed has is the "easy bolus" key. You can bypass all the menus and go straight to the bolus wizard. Minimed is better with straight (normal) boluses because it goes in slower than Animas. Minimed shows the total bolus and you have to scroll down to see the Active insulin making it more difficult to remember the amount and making the decision to subtract the active insulin tricky for my math challenged mind. *you can cancel the dual wave..you just don't like the steps that it takes you through to get to it...but it can be done.  You can see all the basal on a screen, just look at basal review...when changing, yes, you have one basal on a screen at a time. Minimed does not have a protective cover for the cartridge cap. There is an activity guard that "is perfect for participating in rough-and-tumble sports." It locks over the battery cover and reservoir compartment for extra protection. Minimed does not give you this info so you can determine if you have the basal vs. bolus ratio semi correct (basal 40% and bolus 60%). When you download your pump to Carelink, it gives you all that information and more. And you can forward it to your MD or CDE and they also can view it immediately, helping to adjust dosages very quickly. The download itself takes very little effort or time. In fact, you do not even need to disconnect the pump to do it.

OmniPod

'I tried a demo of the Omnipod, but decided against it and went with the Minimed. I think that the Omnipod is great, it just wasn't for me. I wore it for three days and had a lot of trouble sleeping with it on. That was probably the biggest reason I chose not to go with it."

Please contact manufacturers for pump prices. Most pumps start at approximately $6500CAD+ but can vary. Also check with your provincial health care provider as more provinces are now covering pumps and/or supplies.

Infusion Sets


90 degree sites...


Disetronic Rapid-D uses 28 gauge needle. Inserts at 90 degrees. Multiple base units allow you to change infusion sites without changing tubing. Low profile design makes it very discreet. 

Inset II or Insets by Animas
This set has a teflon cannula. It has an all in one infusion set and inserter. It disconnects at the point of insertion. Small, flat infusion set design.  One-handed insertion and hidden introducer needle. Disconnect and connect the tubing at the site. Convenient needle protection after use. Safe to carry without compromising sterility. 23 and 43 inch tubing. 27 gauge introducer needle with 6 and 9mm cannulas

mioThe mio™ infusion set is Medtronic Diabetes new "all-in-one" design that combines the infusion set and insertion device into one unit. This 90°, soft cannula set is available in a variety of configurations and colors to match your personal body type, preferences, and lifestyle

Quicksets use a 90 degree insertion. Luer Lock or Paradigm connection. 6 or 9 mm needle. 25 gauge intro needle, 27 gauge cannula.  23, 43 inch tubing lengths.

30 degree sites


Inset 30 by Animas. 

Pre-fixed 30 degree insertion angle. One handed insertion. Small and flat infusion set design. Ergonomic design with integrated insertion devise and a reversible connector that makes connecting and disconnecting a snap. Transparent window to view the site. Well-protected introducer needle. Disconnect and connect the tubing at the site. Convenient needle protection after use. Quiet release of the insertion devise. Available in blue, pink and grey with 23 and 43 inch tubing lengths. 13mm cannula.

 

Comments


_____ has just began using these. Mom likes them, but she doesn't. She says that they hurt a lot more (even with the numbing cream) than the insets or the comfort detach. Mom doesn't like the insets. Each site change Mom ends up using two of them b/c the first one comes off as she withdraws the needle. Anyway, Mom is not sure if _____ doesn't like them b/c they are new, or if ____ really doesn't like them. She is a child that is very resistant to change.

We have been using the Inset 30 for about a week.   We were using ContactD (straight in needle site).   We had no complaints with ContactD - they are super easy to insert and in one year of pumping we only had one site failure.  But ______ could be somewhat protective of his site.
Inserting the Inset 30 is super easy.  The device has these little feet on it so you get the angle right.  No pinching up skin, just squeeze the device.  Removing the needle kind of psyches me out because it is so long, but Oliver said it doesn't really hurt.  The device is actually really gentle and doesn't make the big THWACK the Inset makes.

Our first site failed.  Luckily, _____ was willing to try again, and so far it's been working great.  I like the window so that I can actually see the site.   He also likes that we haven't had to tape it down with IV3000 like we used to do with the Contact-D (which would hardly stick to him at all).  So far, it has stuck through several baths and swimming.   It is easier for him to connect/disconnect himself (not sure if that's good or bad....)  He says it is comfortable.  He also is happy that we only have to change it every third day instead of every second.  I really like that also. So, we are really happy with it.

Wow! If you read the instructions it is the easiest site to use! No touching of tape to begin with. Nice viewing window. Perfect if you like to use 30 degree sets.
Barb

      Tenders; Comfort; and Silhouettes all use a 30 degree insertion.  They have 13mm Teflon cannula. 25 gauge intro needle, 27 gauge cannula.  24, 31, 43 inch tubing.  All have luer lock connection.

Disetronic offers the MiniTender with a smaller cannula size.

 

Where do you put a set?


Just like injection therapy, insulin infusion sites must be rotated.  Site maps such as the one below may help to keep track of insertion sites and reduce the chance of hypertrophy.


 

You are not limited to using only one area of your body.  Any area suitable for injections may also be used for infusion sets.  Here are just some of the areas that can be used...

 

The abdomen The thigh

The arm

 

How do you change a site?

 
Site changes should be taught by a certified pump trainer!! Below is a demonstration of how "we" change a 90 degree infusion set. This should be used as a guide ONLY.  It has been brought to our attention that our method and the method described by the Animas website (who distribute this set) are different. They do not require that you pinch the skin for one but it is an old MDI habit that I cannot break especially on a small child with minimal fat. Please remember to go through your trainer and read your manuals before doing a site change. This is only a guide for those who may forget or simply are curious as to what it may look like to do.

For those who would prefer to insert the site according to the InsetII instructions, here is where we differ. I do not use the automatic inserter built into the site (as you can tell from the instructions below).  The Animas instructions suggest that after you have removed the adhesive backing paper you "Place fingers on lined indentations. Press lined indentations on each side. Pull spring up until you hear a "click" (this is what we do NOT do). Carefully remove the needle guard by gently twisting and then pulling it. Place tubing in the slot so that it is not caught under the devise when inserting. Position InsetII. Simultaneously press the round indentations on either side of the insertion devise to insert it. Push gently on the center of the inserter to secure the adhesive on the skin. Remove the inserter needle by grasping the center and pulling it gently back. Massage the tape thoroughly into the skin and fill cannula."
Click on pictures to see larger images...

3 steps to change a site

Cleaning site with alcoholAdding Mastisol

Attaching Tubing to pump attaching to pump Pump attached to site

Remove site backing Inserting an Inset into Leg

Finishing site

 

How do you wear your pump? 


Pump clips....

  (not so traditional method of wearing your pump!)

Pump Pouches


casessupplies

 

How do you log when using an insulin pump?


Here are a few of the log pages that work for others....

Pump log A: available in excel format
Date: Site Location________ Breakfast Ratio________ Lunch Ratio_______   Supper Ratio Snack Ratio______ Site Change?
over 15                                                
10.1-15                                                
8.1-10                                                
6.1-8                                                
4.1-6                                                
2.1-4                                                
0-2.0mmoL                                                
ReseviorFill? 12am 1am 2am 3am 4am 5am 6am 7am 8am 9am 10am 11am noon 1pm 2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm 11pm
BG Levels                                                
Carbohydrates                                                
Food Bolus                                                
Correction Bolus                                                
Basal                                                   
Temp Basal                                                
Activity length:                                                  
Activity Type                                                  
Time Breakfast CHO Time Snack CHO Time Lunch CHO Time Snack CHO Time Supper CHO Totals
                                                CHO__
                                                Bolus
                                                Correct
                                                Basal
                                                7Day Basal
    Total       Total       Total         Total       Total  
Notes:                                                  
                                                   


Diabetes Pump Log Sheet: Available in Word
Name:                                                                                                

Date: February 2, 2004

5:30am

6:00am

PreBrkfst

PostBrkfst

PreLunch

PostLunch

PreDin

PostDin

Bedtime

 

Blood Glucose

3.6

4.2

4.8

3.2*

3.4

4.8

3.3

2.7

6.6

19.4at 10:30pm

Carbs

15g

 

50g

15g

72g

 

43g

45g

23g

 

Meal Bolus+Supl Bolus

 

 

2.4

 

3.05

 

1.5

 

.75

+1.25



Pump log B: Available in excel
  My Insulin:carb ratio for AM is __________________                
      My Insulin:carb ratio for lunch is________________                
Date:   My Insulin:carb ratio for supper is_______________                
      My Insulin:carb ratio for snacks is_______________                
My Correction Factor is _______________________
      I correct to a target of _________________________                
      7am 8am 9am 10am 11am noon 1pm 2pm 3pm 4pm 5pm 6pm 7pm 8pm 9pm 10pm  11pm midn
Bg Reading                                        
                                         
Basal Rate                                        
CHO                                        
Food Bolus                                        
Correction Bolus                                        
Activity:length                                        
:type                                        
Temp Basal rate                                        
Breakfast Time CHO Time Lunch CHO Time Supper CHO Time Snacks CHO Time  Bedtime CHO
                                         
                                         
                                         
                                         
                                         
                                         
Total   0     Total 0     Total 0           Total   0
Site Placement:_____________ Outside at recess__________ Gym day:___________ Bed Time___________  
Notes:                                         
                                         
                                         

Pump log D: Available in excel 
NAME:     DATE:     DAY: Saturday      
COMMENT:        
400                                                
350                                                
300                                                
250                                                
225                                                
BG Readings/ Reactions                                                
    0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400
                                                   
Carbohydrates                                                
                                                   
Basal Rate 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0..0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Carbo Bolus                                                
High BG Bolus                                                
Meal Time BREAKFAST Carbs (gms)   Meal Time LUNCH Carbs (gms)   Meal Time DINNER Carbs (gms)
Food Description   Food Description   Food Description  
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
                     
          Total = 0             Total = 0             Total = 0

       

 

Intensive Management log: Available in Word

 

INTENSIVE MANAGEMENT FOR_________________

Date  

12

MN

3AM

4AM

6AM

7AM

8AM

9AM

10AM

11AM

12N

1PM

2PM

3PM

4PM

5PM

6PM

7PM

8PM

9PM

10PM

11PM

Glucose

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total CHO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meal Bolus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

High Bolus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Food

Eaten

 

 

Advertisement

If you enjoy the work of Diabetes Advocacy and the information presented on this site, please consider supporting our efforts through your purchases of diabetes awareness and medical items from our Online Store.

This site does not supply clinical treatment information or medical advice. The editor of this site is NOT a medical professional.  Any advice or information you may receive through this website or our mailing lists is not guaranteed and should always be discussed with your health care provider .  All links are provided for your convenience and further do not signify any endorsement on our behalf.